spanish war of independence

Wellington wrote, "The desertion is terrible, and is unaccountable among the British troops. [149][j], Wellington occupied the right as well as the left bank of the Nive on 9 December 1813 with a portion of his force only under Rowland Hill and Beresford, Ustaritz and Cambo-les-Bains, his loss being slight, and thence pushed down the river towards Villefranque, where Soult barred his way across the road to Bayonne. With the help of a relief operation on 3 May, the fortress held out until 17 August, when lack of food prompted a surrender after a last-ditch breakout attempt failed.[121]. With his Armée d'Espagne of 278,670 men drawn up on the Ebro, facing 80,000 raw, disorganized Spanish troops,[57] Napoleon and his marshals carried out a massive double envelopment of the Spanish lines in November 1808. The French right was then rolled back, and Soult was unable to reinforce his right in time to retrieve the day. The Treaties of Tilsit, negotiated during a meeting in July 1807 between Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon, concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. [167] The Peace of Paris was formally signed at Paris on 30 May 1814.[167]. See Spanish-English translations with audio pronunciations, examples, and word-by-word explanations. ID: 205305 Language: English School subject: Social Science Grade/level: 6º Age: 10-13 Main content: Spanish war of independence Other contents: Add to my workbooks (0) Download file pdf Add to Google Classroom Add to Microsoft Teams Manuel Godoy, the favorite of King Charles IV of Spain, began to seek some form of escape. [71], By the end of 1812, the large army that had invaded the Russian Empire, the Grande Armée, had ceased to exist. Victor's I Corps retreated before them from Talavera. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The best of the British forces in Catalonia were ordered to join Wellington's army on the river Garonne in France. [40] The main French army of 80,000 held a narrow strip of central Spain from Pamplona and San Sebastián in the north to Madrid and Toledo in the centre. "[124] The victorious troops massacred 200–300 Spanish civilians. [74] In March 1809, Soult invaded Portugal through the northern corridor, with Francisco da Silveira's 12,000 Portuguese troops unraveling amid riot and disorder, and within two days of crossing the border Soult had taken the fortress of Chaves. Although the cannons were useless, the Allied forces captured 30 gunboats and a large quantity of stores. [149] Wellington on 10 November 1813 attacked and drove the French to Bayonne. Many translated example sentences containing "war of Independence" – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations. The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict fought by Spain and Portugal, assisted by the United Kingdom, against the invading and occupying forces of France for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The Allied loss was about 5,000, the French 3,000. [89][90] On the afternoon of 28 November, Kellermann attacked Del Parque at Alba de Tormes and routed him after inflicting losses of 3,000 men. [109], As a prelude to invasion, Ney took the Spanish fortified town of Ciudad Rodrigo after a siege lasting from 26 April to 9 July 1810. During the following years there were declarations all over Latin America to form American government Juntas in order to m… The year is 1808, and French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte has seized control of Spain. [139] With the army poised on the borders of France, desertion had become a problem. [93] Napoleon relied on support from these afrancesados both in the conduct of the war and administration of the country. Wellington's brother-in-law Edward Pakenham wrote, "I should think that much must depend upon proceedings in the north: I begin to apprehend ... that Boney may avail himself of the jealousy of the Allies to the material injury of the cause. Beresford lifted the siege and his army intercepted the marching French. Suchet, after the Battle of Vitoria, evacuated Tarragona (17 August) but defeated Bentinck in the battle of Ordal (13 September). The latter led to many Anglo-Allied soldiers abandoning the pursuit of the fleeing troops, to instead loot the wagons. [33] On 24 February, Napoleon declared that he no longer considered himself bound by the Treaty of Fontainebleau. The rebellion in Madrid began the movement that ultimately proved fatal to Napoleon’s power. Napoleon planned from that moment to deal with his inconstant ally at some future time. [47] Dupont was disturbed enough to curtail his march at Cordoba, and then on 16 June to fall back to Andújar. [21] According to the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Junot's invasion force was to be supported by 25,500 Spanish troops. The Emperor sent orders on 19 July 1807 to his Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, to order Portugal to declare war on Britain, close its ports to British ships, detain British subjects on a provisional basis and sequester their goods. Updates? This reduced Suchet's French Catalonian army from 87,000 to 60,000 of whom 10,000 were on garrison duty. This uprising became a part of the Peninsular War, which lasted from 1808 to 1814. On 11 July, Soult was given command of all French troops in Spain and in consequence Wellington decided to halt his army to regroup at the Pyrenees. According to Esdaile, the best policy would have been to have fallen back to the Ebro, but the political situation in 1813 made this impossible; Napoleon wanted to avoid being seen as weak by the German princes, who were watching the advancing Russians and wondering whether they should change sides. Both sides claimed victory but the British maintained the blockade and the French retired without being attacked. The southern portion, as the Principality of the Algarves, would fall to Godoy. Napoleon now had all the pretext that he needed, while his force, the First Corps of Observation of the Gironde with divisional general Jean-Andoche Junot in command, was prepared to march on Lisbon. Spanish attacks on Soult's heavily fortified positions were repulsed but Beresford's assault compelled the French to fall back. On 2 May, the citizens of Madrid rebelled against the French occupation; the uprising was put down by Joachim Murat's elite Imperial Guard and Mamluk cavalry, which crashed into the city and trampled the rioters. Corrections? [79] On 27 July at the Battle of Talavera, the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times, but at a heavy cost to the Anglo-Allied force, which lost 7,500 men for French losses of 7,400. War and revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, promulgated by the Cortes of Cádiz, later a cornerstone of European liberalism. [27], The Prince Regent John escaped, loading his family, courtiers, state papers and treasure aboard the fleet, protected by the British, and fled to Brazil. Suffering heavy casualties, the French failed to dislodge the Anglo-Portuguese army. War of Independence of the Spanish-American Colonies of 1810-26 the liberation war of the peoples of Spanish America against Spanish rule. The French counterattack, leading to the recapture of Madrid (December 1808), forced the junta to retreat southward to Sevilla (Seville). "[137] But the defeat or defection of Austria, Russia and Prussia was not the only danger. [13] After a long artillery barrage, the French placed together the muzzles of over 600 cannons to render them unusable to the Spanish and British. Military officers forced Ferdinand to accept the Cádiz Constitution again in 1820, and was in effect until April 1823, during what is known as the Trienio Liberal. By a secret convention reached at Fontainebleau (Oct., 1807) Spain agreed to supp… The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and it is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation and is significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. On 20 February 1809, the garrison capitulated, leaving behind burnt-out ruins filled with 64,000 corpses, of which 10,000 were French. Translate War of independence. The journey from Madrid was halted at Aranjuez, where a revolt organized by the “Fernandista” faction (March 17, 1808) procured the dismissal of Godoy and the abdication of Charles IV in favour of his son Ferdinand VII. In total, 20,000 men were withdrawn; the numbers were not overwhelming, but the occupying forces were left in a difficult position. The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion, revolution and restoration led to the independence of most of Spain's American colonies and the independence of Brazil, which remained a monarchy, after severing ties with Portugal. He besieged the castle of Sagunto and defeated Blake's relief attempt. [59] In Catalonia, Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr's 17,000-strong VII Corps besieged and captured Roses from an Anglo-Spanish garrison, destroyed part of Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu's Spanish army at Cardedeu near Barcelona on 16 December and routed the Spaniards under Conde de Caldagues and Theodor von Reding at Molins de Rei. [33] Charles IV, however, was persuaded to protest his abdication to Napoleon, who summoned the royal family, both kings included, to Bayonne in France. [71], Wellesley returned to Portugal in April 1809 to command the British army, reinforced with Portuguese regiments trained by General Beresford. [97] Mass resistance by the people of Spain inspired the war efforts of Austria, Russia and Prussia against Napoleon. Led Wellington to spanish war of independence into Portugal then on 16 June to fall back to the overseas territories would send! Massena advanced spanish war of independence its relief, attacking Wellington at Fuentes de Oñoro ( 3–5 May ), the. 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