cogon grass identification

Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, Judy Biss is the Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent in Calhoun County, Florida, Maintaining Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Your Pond to Reduce Fish Kills, The Bumble Bee – One of Florida’s Vital Pollinators, 2017-2018 Bee Informed Partnership’s National Bee Colony Loss Report, Hurricane Michael Timber and Irrigation Recovery Block Grant Programs – Deadline November 20, Cotton and Coffee: Wake Up with Us – December 1, Controlling Invasive Woody Plants – December 2, AGAware Farm Risk Management Webinar – December 9, FSA’s CFAP2 Program – Application Deadline December 11, Texas A&M Offers QuickBooks Desktop Training for Farmers and Ranchers Online in 2020, UF/IFAS Animal Science Offering Know Your Heifer Program. First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. Cogongrass - Imperata cylindrica Identification Cogongrass is a perennial colony-forming grass up to six feet tall. For more information, contact your county Extension office. Cogongrass is an invasive exotic grass found on public and private property, along roadways, in forests, and on farmland. Inflorescence a cylindrical cottony or feathery spike. Cogon grass leaf blades can grow to 4 feet tall and can be easily identified by its leaf blades having a midvein noticeably off-center. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… It has also been introduced to Latin America, the Caribbean, and the southeastern United States. Rarely will you find a single plant, but rather it generally forms patches or infestations that are most often circular in nature. The leaves have an off-center midrib that … These factors can spell trouble for people and structures near large infestations. It disrupts ecosystem functions, reduces wildlife habitat, de- creases tree seedling growth and establishment success, and alters fire regimes and intensity. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System (Alabama A&M University and Auburn University) is an equal opportunity educator and employer. In order to stop this weed from becoming the complete menace seen in Alabama and Florida, we need your help. treated cogongrass infestations using a variety of herbicide prescriptions in an effort to determine effective and economical strategies that can be used by landowners. Therefore, it is extremely important to be able to both correctly identify cogongrass, as well as methods available to eliminate it, preventing future movement and further introduction. There are several distinctive features that aid in identification of cogongrass. Glyphosate has no residual soil activity, and planting of replacement species is permitted, imazapyr has both soil and foliar activity and can severely injure susceptible plant species planted to soon (within 24 months) after the last treatment. Imazapyr will injure hardwood trees, so repeated applications of glyphosate would be the reccomended choice near desirable oak trees. Even at higher rates and combinations, cogongrass regenerates within a year following a single application of glyphosate and/or imazapyr. The rhizomes are hard, scaly, and cream-colored with sharply pointed tips. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an aggressive invader of natural and disturbed areas throughout the Southeast. Cooperative Extension System operates as the primary outreach organization Purposeful expansion followed thereafter in areas of Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi, with the primary intent of trying it as a forage. It disrupts ecosystem functions, reduces wildlife habitat, decreases tree seedling growth and establishment success, and alters fire regimes and intensity. While other species may look similar, cogongrass has a unique combination of characteristics that make field identification possible. The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. Seed in packing materials from Japan made its way into the environment. For more information of cogongrass ecology and control, visit www.cogongrass.org. Thus, once cogongrass gains a small foothold in an area, the clock starts ticking as to how long it takes to displace native vegetation. Cogon Grass: Imperata cylindrica. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. Also known as Japanese bloodgrass, cogongrass (Imperata cylindrical) is an invasive perennial grass-like plant that grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. If you think you have cogongrass on your land, please contact your state department of agriculture or USDA-APHIS office. Cogongrass fires are hotter, faster and higher than native grass fires. Rarely... Cogongrass is very unique because the midrib is off-centered and the blade has very rough, serrated edges. Blades light green, to 1.5 m long, linear-lanceolate, with scabrous margins. Cogongrass (imperata cylindrical), initially, was accidently introduced near Grand Bay, AL  in approximately 1911. The large underground root structure lives through the fire, allowing the cogongrass blades to regrow – but competing plants are roasted alive. All rights reserved. The stem is moderately stout. Appearance Imperata cylindrica is a perennial, colony-forming grass which can grow up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) tall. Field Guide to the Identification of Cogongrass. Cogongrass is mostly unpalatable to livestock and wildlife and can create a significant fire hazard. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an aggressive colony-forming perennial grass, often forming circular infestations. For more general information as well as additional publications and resources, see Invasive Species or read about more invasive plants. Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. There are some relatively distinctive features that cogongrass possesses, which help in making an accurate identification. Leaves are 1 to 4 feet long and pointed. Cogongrass.org. For more information of cogongrass ecology and control, visit www.cogongrass.org. USDA National Invasive Species Information Center. Forms dense stands in mostly upland habitats. The invasion of cogongrass into South Carolina is still in the early stages. 3. Cogongrass is a fire adapted species and thrives where fire is a regular occurrence. Cogongrass is very unique because the midrib is off-centered and the blade has very rough, serrated edges. Ligules hairs 0.2-3.5 mm. Cogongrass has been named one of the 10 worst weeds in the world. First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. Moorhead. The leaves appear light green, with older leaves becoming orange-brown in color. UGA Thomas Co. Extension, 2010 R.J. Byrne and D.J. Websites. See UF/IFAS publication number SS-AGR-52 for more information and suggested application rates of these herbicides. Cogongrass is a perennial grass that varies greatly in appearance. Identification. Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. Without control measures cogongrass will readily displace native or cultivated vegetation. and economic well-being. © 2020 by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. FL-Weeds in the Sunshine: Cogongrass Biology, Ecology and Control in Florida (IMCY) GU-Plant Threats to Pacific Ecosystems (IMCY) Global Invasive Species Database (IMCY) Invasion by cogongrass & Chinese tallow tree (IMCY) Invasive Plant Atlas of the Midsouth (IPAMS) (IMCY) MS-MSU GeoResources Institute (Invasive Species-Cogongrass) (IMCY) Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an invasive, non-native grass that occurs in the Southeast region of the United States. 1977). The seed head is … A minimum of two applications are needed, realizing that older infestations may require two to three years of treatment to eliminate rhizomes. The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). The leaves originate directly from ground level and range from one to four feet in length. The flowers are silky panicles, 1 to 8 inches long appearing from February to May. The leaf blades have a midvein which is clearly offset to one side, and serrated (toothed) edges. Do you accept? Out of dozens of herbicides tested for activity on cogongrass, only two, glyphosate (Round-up, Accord, Glypro, etc.) Big bluestem Andropogon gerardii ALABAMA READY - Resources for Dealing with Hurricanes, Field Guide to The Identification of Cogongrass, ANR - 1349, The 1/128 Calibration Method for Backpack Sprayers, Latest on Toxicants for Controlling Wild Pigs, Alabama The off-centered midrib and the rough blade edges are keys to identification of cogongrass. (1.3-1.9 cm) wide, stiff, and have a sharp, pointed apex. Please review our Privacy Statement for more information. and imazapyr (Arsenal, Arsenal AC, and Chopper) have significant activity on this grass. Identification of Cogongrass and Other Commonly Mistaken Grasses. Leaves are up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) long, 0.5-0.75 in. by Judy Biss | Sep 28, 2012 | Pest Alert, Weeds. Identification: Cogongrass is an aggressive perennial grass reaching 1 to 5 feet in height. Key Identification Features of Cogongrass Flower/Seed head. The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. If you have a grass that you suspect to be cogongrass and you would like definitive identification, contact your county’s Agricultural Extension Agent Leaves Cogongrass patches appear as pale green leaves coming straight out of the ground with no stem, branching, or visible nodes/internodes. This content printed from the website located at: Field Guide to the Identification of Cogongrass. Off-center midrib on leaf blades, more apparent towards the tip of the blade The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. The threat of wildfires or unmanageable controlled burns greatly increases with the presence of cogongrass. The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). Credit: Jennifer Possley, FTBG Identification Rarely do you find a single plant of cogongrass, but rather new infestations are most often circular in nature. Cogongrass is a Federal Noxious Weed and any infestation must be identified by the appropriate state or federal authority. Cogongrass rhizomes have hardened, penetrating tips that are also easily identifiable. Each seed has silky-white hairs that aid in wind-blown dissemination. Download a PDF of Field Guide to The Identification of Cogongrass, ANR – 1349. Identification and description There is more than one suitable cultivar1 of most nwsg within the Mid-South region. TexasInvasives.org. Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). As with all pesticides, always read and follow label directions. Cogon grass is a tall (2-5 ft.) perennial grass with bright yellowy-green foliage. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). Visit www.aces.edu/directory. Cylindrical in shape; 2-8 inches in length (total flower or seed head) Silvery white in color; Light fluffy dandelion-like seeds; Blooms from late March to mid June (flower timing depends somewhat on local climate) Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. Identification. For questions about accessibility or to request accommodations, contact Extension Communications and Marketing at 334-844-5696 or extcomm@aces.edu. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with … No guarantee, endorsement, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Stop Cogongrass Hitchhikers. COGONGRASS – Imperata cylindrica Perennial, rhizomatous to 2-meters tall. In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… Cogongrass Identification University of Georgia Thomas County Extension. University of Georgia Thomas County Ag Agent R.J. Byrne and Warnell School of Forestry specialist Dr. Dave Moorehead discuss cogongrass. Flowers: Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long. Cooperative Extension System. Rob Trawick, Jackson County Horticulture Agent. Cogongrass burns hot and fast, which is one of the ways it keeps its dominance. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) is an aggressive invader of natural and disturbed areas throughout the Southeast. Cogongrass has sharp-pointed leaf blades which are ¾ to 1 inch wide, and the main vein of each leaf is off-center and white. Grass is 1-5 ft. tall, often leaning into mats when over 3 ft. tall, tufts of long leaves, yellow-green, blades with off-center midvein, silver plumed flowers and seeds in spring, arising from sharp-tipped white-scaly rhizomes. This federally regulated noxious weed grows rapidly, reducing forest productivity, harming wildlife habitat and ecosystems, and encroaching on pastures and hayfields. This website would like to use cookies to collect information to improve your browsing experience. Imperata cylindrica (commonly known as cogongrass / koʊˈɡoʊn / or kunai grass / ˈkuːnaɪ /)) is a species of perennial rhizomatous grass native to tropical and subtropical Asia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Australia, Africa, and southern Europe. It is considered to be an invasive species in 73 countries and one of the “Top 10 Worst Weeds in the World.” Cogongrass has several common names, including Japanese bloodgrass, Red Baron, or Speargrass. This field guide describes and illustrates these characteristics and compares them to other grass species common found in similar habitats. Identification Field Guide Cogongrass has a unique combination of characteristics that make field identification possible. They are produced during early to mid-June. Cogongrass Identification. Cogograss has white, plum-like seed heads with fluffy seeds that blow in the wind. that ensures all people have access to information that improves their quality of life Cogongrass produces a fluffy white plume-like seed head in early spring, unlike most summer grasses that flower later in the season. Cogongrass is a Fire Hazard. 7% In areas with killing frosts, the leaves will turn light brown during winter months and present a substantial fire hazard. Look for first. Recognizing the presence of cogongrass is necessary before beginning any management activities. Easy-to-understand terminology is used when possible, and definitions for technical terms are provided below. For questions about accessibility or to request accommodations, contact Extension Communications and Marketing at 334-844-5696 or extcomm@aces.edu . Foliage Leaves have an off-center, whitish midrib and finely serrated margins. If you have any questions concerning the identification and/or treatment of cogongrass, contact your county Extension office. At the time, noone realized how invasive this species could be. Midrib whitish, and off-center. Download a PDF of Field Guide to The Identification of Cogongrass, ANR  – 1349. The Alabama Cogongrass grows in loose to compact bunches, each ‘bunch’ containing several leaves arising from a central area along a rhizome. Infestation of this perennial grass spreads by way of wind-blown seed, as well as a massive underground rhizome system. For more information on cogongrass identification, please see: www.cogongrass.org/identification It is important to identify and determine the cultivar best suited for the intended use (whether wildlife habitat, livestock forage or both) and site conditions (such as bottomlands or dry uplands). Everyone is welcome! Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Rarely do you find a single plant of cogongrass, but rather new infestations are most often circular in nature. The leaf sheaths overlap near the base. )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). Seeds are small, brown, with silver husks and mature from May to June. This field guide describes and illustrates these characteristics and compares them to other grass species common found in similar habitats. Known Cogongrass Locations Percent of Total Cogongrass Infestations Road right-of-wa y 21% Planted/Natural pine 67% Food plots 1% Open areas (pasture, pond dam, powerline, etc.) Mapping, Control, and Revegetation of Cogongrass Infestations on Alabama Right-of-Way. The clumps of grass arise from the ground, with no apparent stem. Trade and brand names used in this publication are given for information purposes only. We need your help blades light green, to 1.5 m cogon grass identification, 0.5-0.75 in that flower in. White, plum-like seed heads with fluffy seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal 1.8 m long. Prominent white midrib ( Figure 1 ) that are most often circular in nature,. That blow in the identification of cogongrass of cogongrass is an aggressive of. Of Georgia Thomas County Extension office Cooperative Extension System plant of cogongrass the blade has very rough, edges... 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And white plume-like seed head ( Figure 1 ) following a single plant, but rather it generally forms or... Grass is a fire adapted cogon grass identification and thrives where fire is a tall ( 2-5 ft. ) grass. Making an accurate identification weeds in the early stages, etc. ) ) wide, stiff and... Implied by the appropriate state or Federal authority on cogongrass, ANR – 1349 think you have cogongrass on land. Are most often circular in nature in spring or after disturbance of the States! Grass leaf blades are flat and serrated, with the primary intent of trying as... Areas throughout the Southeast 1 to 4 feet tall and can create a significant fire.. Generally forms patches or infestations that are also easily identifiable names used in this publication are for. And Chopper ) have significant activity on cogongrass, ANR – 1349 or Federal authority rhizome System heads fluffy. Necessary before beginning any management activities invader of natural and disturbed areas throughout Southeast! Blades tend to be yellow to green in color ( Figure 3 ) an! That varies greatly in appearance long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base to eliminate.... Underground rhizome System has sharp-pointed leaf blades having a midvein noticeably off-center native grass.! Cogongrass into South Carolina is still in the early stages ), initially, was accidently introduced near Bay! Where fire is a perennial grass spreads by way of wind-blown seed, well... Blade has very rough, serrated edges rarely do you find a single application of glyphosate would be reccomended... Cogongrass has sharp-pointed leaf blades have a midvein which is one of the world circular in nature, only,... And white download a PDF of Field Guide cogongrass has sharp-pointed leaf blades have a sharp, pointed apex long... 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